Stomach Viruses Have Secret Strategy To Hit Us Hard
Researchers have discovered why some stomach bugs hit us so hard and spread so fast.
canada goose store New research published Wednesday in Cell canada goose store Host Microbe found that stomach infections, like norovirus and rotavirus, are more contagious and more potent when the virus particles cluster together. canada goose store
The research began in 2015, when the researchers were studying polioviruses for a different project. It was led by Dr. Nihal Altan Bonnet, who focuses on host pathogen connections at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. The researchers were looking, in particular, at vesicles groups of viruses that clump together under protective membranes compared with free ranging viruses. Was there any difference, they wondered, in how the clustered and stand alone viruses attacked our bodies?
canada goose clearance sale Before this new research, scientists thought individual particles of a virus spread illnesses more effectively. It seemed like basic arithmetic. If you have 1,000 virus particles, you have 1,000 chances for cells to become infected. If you have only 20 clusters of viruses, they have only 20 chances to attack cells. Right? canada goose clearance sale
Nope. In 2015, the researchers discovered that the viral clusters were much more effective cheap canada goose uk at attacking human cells. But those results were canada goose black friday sale from laboratory experiments. Could the same hold true in real life?
According to this canada goose outlet study, yes. There’s strength in numbers. The virus particles glom together and become their own sort of organism, and then they bombard our tissues with an overwhelming dose of the illness.
«By being together, they infect an intestinal cell with a very high number simultaneously,» Altan Bonnet explains. «Multiple viruses go inside that same cell.»
She likens the virus clusters to a Trojan horse they enter the cell as one unit, and then once inside the cell they can attack canada goose very effectively.
«They cooperate and compensate for each other’s insufficiencies,» Altan Bonnet says.
Canada Goose Parka The viruses are not only more contagious in clusters but often cause more severe infections than the freestanding viruses. The mice and piglets in the researchers’ experiments got much sicker, and stayed sick longer, when exposed to the virus clusters instead of individual Canada Goose Parka viruses. Canada Goose Parka
Canada Goose Jackets And the research indicates that the protective membrane around these viral clusters may help them pass unnoticed by the immune systems making them even more difficult to fight off. Canada Goose Jackets
canada goose coats «These viruses are sort of in stealth mode,» Altan Bonnet says. canada goose coats
canada goose coats on sale Robert Legare Atmar, a doctor and professor of infectious disease at Baylor College of Medicine, says these canada goose factory sale results are significant. «They further our knowledge of how these important viral enteric pathogens can cause infection and be transmitted,» he explains. canada goose coats on sale
buy canada goose jacket «It helps us understand Canada Goose sale mechanisms of norovirus and rotavirus transmission better,» says Atmar, who was not affiliated with this study. «Such understanding may help http://www.mycanadagoosejacket.org us design strategies and interventions to interrupt Canada Goose Outlet transmission.» buy canada goose jacket
Further research, he says, will very likely dive deeper into how these clusters are transmitted and how they operate within the body. «Can antivirals be developed that prevent the formation of these ‘packets’?» he asks.
canada goose Stomach bugs affect millions of people every year. From cruise ships to the Olympics, outbreaks of norovirus and rotavirus can cause serious and difficult to treat stomach illnesses. canada goose
Canada Goose sale We tend to pick up these stomach infections by something called the «fecal oral route,» which is as gross as it sounds. Basically, it happens when you accidentally ingest poop by drinking tainted water or chewing on your fingernails after touching an infected doorknob, for example. Usually, the illnesses cause stomach pain and diarrhea, but some people especially children and the elderly are at risk canada goose coats of dying from the viruses. Canada Goose sale
canadian goose jacket A rotavirus vaccine exists, but canada goose clearance sale studies show it works only if administered before 15 weeks of age making it difficult Canada Goose Coats On Sale to give in many parts of the world. Norovirus, on canadian goose jacket the other Canada Goose Online hand, has neither a vaccine nor a specific drug to treat it. canadian goose jacket
The researchers focused on these viruses in part because they are difficult to treat and because many people infected with them are unable to work.
canada goose clearance «There’s a lot of economic costs, because it’s so severe,» Altan Bonnet says. canada goose clearance
canada goose black friday sale But there is good news in all of this. canada goose black friday sale
The researchers say their work will help others develop treatments to target these clusters, rather than the individual particles, which could canada goose clearance provide a breakthrough in dealing with the notoriously uk canada goose difficult illnesses.
«This research is going to lead to the development of different types of antiviral drugs ones canada goose uk shop that target clusters differently,» Altan Bonnet says. canada goose uk outlet «One way to do it is by targeting the membranes.»
canada goose deals Medications that penetrate the protective shell around the virus clusters could help our uk canada goose outlet bodies fight them off more quickly and easily. canada goose deals
cheap Canada Goose And there cheap Canada Goose are other, more surprising ways others might use this research. For instance, Altan Bonnet says, viruses such as polio are being used to target brain tumors. The research is in canada goose coats on sale the early stages, but testing on humans has begun. The idea is that the researchers might be able to use polio clusters, rather than individual viruses, to attack the tumors more Canada Goose Jackets effectively. cheap Canada Goose
Canada Goose Outlet «It would seem crazy, right?» she asks. «But if you don’t have any buy canada goose jacket cheap other choices, it’s actually not a bad approach.» Canada Goose Outlet
buy canada goose jacket cheap In that case, knowing how to make viruses even more potent could be a good thing, she says. buy canada goose jacket cheap
Next, the NIH researchers want to know whether other virus clusters are equally as powerful. Previously, canada goose uk black friday they’ve shown in the lab that rhinoviruses, or the common cold, can also be more powerful when they band together. They will examine droplets from sneezes and coughs to see whether colds and even the flu can be transmitted in potent clusters.