By ‘double normal’, we mean the different behavioural guidelines that women and men are subjected to . More specifically, the sexual double standard ‘consists of judging heterosexual women and men in a different way for a similar sexual behaviour’ (Gómez Berrocal et al., 2019, p. 1664).
The research focuses on the media protection of migrant ladies between 2005 and 2012. Table I reveals the topics associated to the photographs of migrant ladies, and focuses particularly on reproductive rights. I decided to pattern newspapers focused on completely different audiences so as to spotlight the attainable differences in framing and narrating migrant ladies’ s issues. In order to explore the Italian media narratives about migrant women I analysed 634 articles from Italian newspapers, revealed between June 2005 and July 2012.
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The first necessary result’s an observable change within the sexuality of Italian students between 2000 and 2017. Primarily, we found additionally in Italy the indications of a modernisation already experienced in North-western Europe. Along with the discount in age at first intercourse, each gay and informal intercourse and acceptance of sexual freedom have increased.
Table 4 illustrates that the usage of fashionable contraception on the first intercourse amongst students increased to nearly 80% in 2017 (seventy one.2% condoms, 7.4% pills, and zero.4% intrauterine units ). In 2017, the proportion of students having their first sexual activity with an occasional partner differed by gender (29.4% among men vs. 11.8% amongst girls). Notably, this difference is smaller than that found in 2000, predominantly as a result of a discount in the number of young males having first intercourse with an unknown partner. Consistently, further analysis reveals that the proportion of young adults who declared having had first sexual intercourse with an individual of the same age elevated from fifty six.three to 67.5% among males and from 68.1 to seventy six.6% among females. Among college students born at the end of the Nineties, first sexual intercourse—even when it occurred at an earlier age compared to college students born in the early Eighties—was typically experienced inside a stable relationship and with a greater consciousness of contraception.
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Third, it is difficult to determine with certainty whether spatial or temporal variations are as a result of precise behavioural modifications or to a variation in the respondents’ admissions (Caltabiano and Dalla-Zuanna, 2013). This is often a problem with comparative surveys when moral, or socially sensitive, points are in question. The diffusion and acceptance of new sexual practices ought to have led to a reduction in the social desirability bias. Regarding gender differences in opinions, the confidence intervals for males did not overlap with these for ladies, indicating a affirmation in 2017 of the gender variations found in 2000. Regardless, compared to 2000, the distance between men and women decreased across the board in 2017, suggesting that whereas males and females still have numerous opinions, these have become less so since 2000. For example, male college students’ opinions on informal sex did not change between 2000 and 2017 .
These circumstances have inevitable long-term penalties on the connection with the child along with its nicely-being and growth . In our study, neither instrumental childbirth nor caesarean part have a major effect on ladies’s start experience. Instead, both a longer expulsion part and epidural analgesia contribute to the adverse expertise. Moreover, the upper the fear of birth, the worse the ladies’s emotional experience.
Many students have focused on racism, stereotypization and/or criminalisation of migrants, and Islamophobia (see, for instance, Said, 1997; Van Dijk, 1991). Nevertheless, significantly much less attention has been paid to the precise representations of migrant ladies (Campani, 2001; Nash, 2006; Navarro, 2010). Therefore, the analysis of discourse within the mass media is essential so as to perceive how migrant girls are constructed as a political topic in Italy, and the way their rights are open to political and/or xenophobic manipulation. In this attitude, the evaluation of the representation of migrant women article in the media consists of the evaluation of the narratives and frames they are situated within in the public sphere. Migration flows regulation is a crucial matter in current political campaigns and some political parties lever on anti-immigration agendas in setting up their political identity . The radical populist Northern League significantly focuses on undocumented migration at the major issue in its political discourses (Biorcio, 1997 and 2010; Diamanti, 1996). Thus, the defence of migrant girls’s rights is intertwined with the political discourse on migrants.